Familiarity certainly contributes a lot to liking flavours.
I think that people liking the rancid peanut butter cups is a good example of tastes people are used to - and when they were presented with the fresher version they did not like it (not familiar). However I suspect that if they were presented with fresh cups for some time people would grow to like them (or even prefer them).
Interestingly (from what I read) in the 16th coffee used to take months of sea travel - so it got an “aged salty flavour” that people liked (got used to). When the Suez Canal was first opened (1869) much fresher coffee became available and people (initially at least) did not like it. These days the fresher coffee has definitely become the preferred (familiar) taste
As far as fermented tastes go there are lot of common fermented foods that we probably don’t think of as fermented. Wine, miso, yoghurt, soy sauce (naturally brewed varieties - not the chemically cracked ones), European style butter, soft white cheese, other cheeses (cultured = similar), fish sauce, cocoa, sour cream (Creme Fraiche), pickled vegetables like sauerkraut etc, Tabasco sauce (and many other sauces), Tempeh, vinegar, kefir, kombucha. And there are 1000s more when you include less familiar fermented foods from around the world…
And of course wet process coffee
So I think it is safe to say that fermentation adds complexity to flavour. Though the original motivation was simply to preserve the food.
Try a naturally fermented vs a cracked soy sauce - the natural one wins every time for me - much more subtle and complex. I have always preferred the natural ones long before I knew that they were fermented.